It is necessary to know the answer to the question of what fascism is , because in the last few years, people have participated in discussions on various topics with their own criticisms without knowing exactly what fascism is, and brought the adjective fascist before certain names, regardless of how appropriate it is to use it.
The origin of this ideology goes back quite a long time. This article, on the other hand, will provide a good understanding of the purpose of the ideology underlying the actions that ended in a very destructive way.
What is Fascism?
Fascism is a complex political ideology that came to prominence in Europe in the 1920s to 1930s. Among the best-known examples of fascist governments, Bennito Mussolini’s National Fascist Party, which existed in Italy from 1922 to 1943, stands out.
Adolf Hitler’s German Workers Party, which was active in politics from 1933 to 1945, is an example of this.
Although fascism is generally associated with the Italian and German governments that came to power after World War I, it is possible to encounter fascist governments in many other countries. Adolf Hitler in Germany, Francisco Franco in Spain, and Benito Mussolini in Italy were among the best-known fascist leaders of the 20th century.
The ideologies and goals adopted by the fascist leaders of Hitler and Mussolini continue to guide fascist movements in most countries today. Fascist leaders often tend to speak on behalf of an entire nation or group. Until now, it has not been seen that they hesitated to use any means, including brute force, to achieve their goals.
Contrary to ideologies such as communism, liberalism, socialism, conservatism, and nationalism, fascism does not have a philosophy on its basis. This is mostly due to the fact that the ideology in question does not have a founding thinker.
For this reason, it is very difficult to define fascism. Despite this, all fascists act together at one point. Since fascists think that the only way to make a nation good is through national power, they do not hesitate to use any means to achieve this goal.
Fascists use the country’s assets to make the country stronger. This leads to the joint use of the country’s assets. From this point of view, it also falls within the scope of anti-capitalism, which advocates a classless society understanding.
Fascist leaders are quite good at scapegoating certain groups with propaganda, but the targeted group may differ from country to country. For example, while the Nazi administration targeted Jews, they portrayed them as demons in the eyes of their own people.
Leaders who target a group make their group believe they are being victimized. This makes the group want to fight by giving an untrue fact.
While doing all this, the feeling of brotherhood is emphasized because one of the most important features that distinguishes a nation from all other nations is that that nation is stronger than other nations.
This was the same in Antiquity and in the Middle Ages. Governments at that time felt they had to do something to keep the ruled class connected, because they thought that a disjointed community was the most difficult to manage and would eventually lead to its collapse.
The most important element in fascism is power. For example, Mussolini also focused on issues such as women’s suffrage and workers’ rights to promote the spread of ultra-nationalism. He also gathered power by forming alliances with conservatives.
What Does Fascism Mean?
The term fascism, coined by Mussolini in 1919, comes from the Italian word “fascio”, meaning a bunch or group.
It has many different definitions. For some it means the exclusion of certain groups, often through violence, for others it means a denial of individual rights and democracy. According to the interpretation of nationalism, fascism refers to nationalism that seeks to increase the influence of the nation.
II. After World War II, fascism became obsolete in many parts of the world. The word fascist means more of a political insult these days. Of course, this does not mean that there are no fascist movements growing in many parts of the world. Not only did it become Fascism, which rose after the First World War, it changed.
From this point of view, Hitler was not one of the fascists we know. National Socialism had emerged in Germany at that time as a new subgenre of Fascism ideology. While National Socialism argued that the pure race was superior to all other races, the idea of nationalism lay at the root of Mussolini’s fascism ideology.
Although both seem like two separate ideologies, they both have a lot in common. For example, both are anti-capitalist. Both are based on power.
Who Are Called Fascists?
Fascists are people who are pro-Fascist. Although the aim of every fascist movement is not the same, it is often seen that nationalism comes to the fore as the main aim. On the other hand , being against capitalism, which we mentioned when answering the question of what is capitalism, is an important part of fascism.
People who live in the same society or who target a certain group that they perceive as a threat, even from afar, who point out this group with propaganda, who try to convey their thoughts to everyone they see as one of their own, who are anti-capitalist, who stay away from individualism itself and those who defend it can be called fascists. .
What Are the Characteristics of Fascism?
- He puts his own nation above other nations.
- Fascist governments are mostly dominated by men.
- Fear of national security is one of the most important tools used to control the masses.
- Censorship can be applied, freedom of expression can be restricted.
- It is anti-individual.
- It prevents progress focused on reason and science.
- Groups that oppose this system are often violently disbanded.