Turkish Mythology: Gods, Animals, Creatures and More

Turkish Mythology: Gods, Animals, Creatures and More
Turkish Mythology: Gods, Animals, Creatures and More

Turkish mythology is a great mythology with elements that formed the basis of the belief of the Turks in the past. It has become a very rich mythology with legends, epics and myths from Turkish tribes that lived in the past.

Although myths are considered as fictional narratives, each one has a great place in understanding society. You may not know where to start because it is a very rich mythology in terms of content.


To help you with this, instead of listing all the characters, gods and animals at the same time, we will proceed by dividing them into sections. This will help you better understand the characters mentioned in mythology.

Turkish Mythology: Gods, Animals, Creatures and More

Turkish Mythology Gods and Goddesses

  • sky god
  • Kayra Han
  • Ulgen
  • Kizagan
  • Mergen
  • Erlik
  • Umay
  • Mrs. Kubey
  • Od Ana and Od Ata

The gods and goddesses that stand out in mythology are like this. Let’s take a look at each of them one by one.

sky god

The Sky God is a god thought to have arisen from the height of the sky beyond the reach of humans. Sometimes the god was associated with the sky itself, and sometimes it was believed that he was in the sky. After creation, he withdrew from the earth and sent other gods in his place.

Although he is taken to the sky, he is not completely disconnected from people. When people on earth needed him, he went to him again. He is the creator of all things, eternal and immortal. The representative of the Sky God on earth is the ruler. Sovereigns get their power from God.

Kayra Han

He is the greatest of the gods after the Sky God. He created people and the world. Sitting on the seventeenth floor of the sky, he rules the fate of the universe. Kayra Han has three children. The first of these is Ülgen.


Ülgen is the son of Kayra Han. Kayra Han is more at the forefront with issues such as the creation and destiny of the universe. Ülgen, the god of goodness, has more control over the weather. He is one of the most important gods after Kayra Khan. It is known for lightning and lightning bolts. Wherever lightning strikes, that place is now sacred.


Kızagan is another son of Kayra Han. He is the god of war. It has incredible power. It helps the army to win the wars. Warriors rely on him during battle. No matter how small the army is, Kizagan wins the war because it makes the warriors invincible.


Mergen is the god of mind. He is another son of Kayra Han. It is representative of the mind. He is wise. Ülgen is on the sixteenth floor of the sky, Kızılgan is on the ninth floor, and Mergen is on the seventh floor. According to the ranking, Ülgen comes right after Kayra Han. Ülgen is followed by Kızagan. Finally, there is Mergen.


Erlik is the god of evil. He is considered the son of the Sky God. Just as Mergen is the representative of reason, Erlik is also the representative of evil. He was punished by being sent underground by the Sky God for messing things up while the world was being created.


Umay is considered the goddess of fertility. In many tales and stories, the Moon is seen as male and the Sun as female. Umay is also associated with the Sun. As far as is known, the oldest documents about him are based on the Orkhon Inscriptions. In one article, it is stated that a ruler representing the Sky God had a child thanks to Umay.

Mrs. Kubey

Kübey Hanım is the goddess of birth. She helps women who have just given birth, she. When the woman gives birth, she is with him. She relieves her pain, she leaves the woman who gave birth a few days after the child is born.

Od Ana and Od Ata

Od Ana is the goddess of fire, Od Ata is the god of fire. According to the belief in the past, fire is very important. It was forbidden to stir the fire suddenly, let alone pouring water on it.

Turkish Mythology Animals

  • Snake
  • Dog
  • Fox
  • Kurd

Among the prominent animals in mythology are snakes, dogs, foxes and wolves. So, what meaning were attached to these animals?

Turkish Mythology: Gods, Animals, Creatures and More


The snake is a symbol related to Erlik, which is depicted as the king of the underground. It is associated with evil and bad luck. The reflection of the negative depiction of the snake was also seen in the period after Islam.

Turkish Mythology: Gods, Animals, Creatures and More


The dog was often seen by the Turks as a sheep opposite the wolf. There is weakness at the root of the analogy here. While animals such as wolves were considered strong, dogs were thought to be weaker animals.

Turkish Mythology: Gods, Animals, Creatures and More


The fox was associated with deceit and cunning. On the other hand, the fox skin on the shaman’s headdress shows that foxes are among the animals involved in shamanic ceremonies. In some legends, the fox, or rather the black fox, is also depicted as an evil spirit who wants to lure hunters to death.


Turkish Mythology: Gods, Animals, Creatures and More


Wolves were among the animals most feared by those who lived by hunting. These incredibly powerful animals were thought to have supernatural powers, and they were both feared and respected.

Turks, who see a similarity between their own way of life and the way of life of wolves, establish a closer relationship with these animals. So much so that it has been at the center of many legends.

Turkish Mythology Creatures and Characters

  • overhead projector
  • Ghoul
  • Wednesday Wife
  • Arçura
  • Baycura
  • Erbuke

Although the most talked about creatures to date are the Cyclops and the Ghouls, there are many more prominent creatures within the scope of Turkish mythology. The Wednesday Wife was even the main subject of a movie. This creature met with the audience as the 8th movie of the horror series called House of Nightmares.

If you wish, let’s take a quick look at these characters that form the basis of many creature ideas.

overhead projector

Having only one eye, Tepegoz has a thick skin that cannot be cut with swords or struck by weapons. He only dies when he is shot in the eye. It is sometimes seen to be depicted with a horn on its top.


The ghoul is depicted as having a tall body and an eerie long beard. Like his face, his body is also covered with feathers. It occurs mostly in the evening. It tends to be seen on mountain tops and deserts. He communicates with people just like a human being.

Wednesday Wife

Wednesday’s Wife has a frightening appearance. He has an obsession with Wednesdays. Wednesday If the wife starts work on a Wednesday night, she comes home and does not leave without the child of the house.


Arçura has tangled hair and beard. His hair is long enough to touch the ground and is in a unity with his beard. Their screams are so powerful that they instantly make everyone around them tremble with fear. They don’t kill people, but they hurt them. He is portrayed more as an old man. It is also said to change shape.

One of the worst things a forest wanderer could do was disturb Arçura. Arçura kept all the people in the forest in mind and ensured that those who disturbed him would end in death.

Turkish Mythology: Gods, Animals, Creatures and More


Bayçura is described as a house spirit believed to live in every house. It can disguise itself as an animal or human. When he takes human form, he wears a red dress. It eats people’s leftovers.

The anger of this beast is a complete disaster for the inhabitants of the house. He breaks plates, makes a mess and leaves the house to return after a certain time. Unclean houses decorate his dreams because he is a filthy creature. It also interferes with the layout of the house.

You can also read our article about the real story of the Horror Session , which is one of the movies shot through spirits like Bayçura . After reading the story behind the movie, which is claimed to be a real adaptation in this article, you can find out in which order you should watch the movie series by clicking the link at the end of the article.


Erbüke is half human half snake. The masculine ones are called erbüke, while the female ones are called isbüke. The top of its body is in the shape of a human, while the bottom of its waist is in the shape of a snake.

Turkish Mythology: Gods, Animals, Creatures and More

Book Recommendations for Turkish Mythology

  • Outline of Turkish Mythology
  • Turkish Mythology
  • Dictionary of Turkish Monsters

This mythology is not as complicated as Greek mythology. It is relatively clear and simple. However, in order to learn mythology well, it is necessary to research well. You can achieve this by reading the three books above.

Let us explain below what benefits you will gain after reading these books.

Outline of Turkish Mythology

The following expression is used in the book titled Main Lines of Turkish Mythology, written by Yaşar Çoruhlu: “Mythology is one of the mirrors that best reflects a nation.”

Based on this sentence, elements such as the beliefs and behaviors of the Turks are discussed in detail in the book. From the factor behind the emergence of the belief in the Sky God to why the wolves have become an important symbol for the Turks, very important issues are discussed.

Turkish Mythology

Turkish historian Prof. Dr. Turkish Mythology written by Bahaeddin Ögel consists of two volumes. The book, written by Ögel for a long time, contains very useful information in terms of informing future generations about Turkish history.

Dictionary of Turkish Monsters

This book by Ahmet Burak Turan is an impressive book, written by scanning countless sources and doing real research in the field, and presenting the reader with full information in terms of content. The frightening description of monsters and the drawings based on this description manage to satisfy the reader who is hungry for information on this subject.


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